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Time to know about Dengue fever…..

By August 25, 2017 Article

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What is dengue fever?

Dengue is a viral disease, transmitted by the infective bite of a particular mosquito known as Aedes Aegypti. Human being develops disease after 5 – 6 days of being bitten by an infective mosquito. It occurs in two forms: Classical Dengue fever also known as “break bone” fever and Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF) which is life threatening.

It is very common after rainy season. It is highly contagious and spreads from one person to another through mosquito bites. It is widespread in tropical and sub-tropical regions.

Symptoms

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Symptoms usually develop within 3-14 days after being exposed to the dengue virus (also known as incubation period). The average incubation period is around 4-7 days.

Symptoms of dengue are:

  1. Sudden-onset fever
  2. Headache (typically located behind the eyes)
  3. Muscle and joint pain
  4. Rash
  5. Chills (shivering)
  6. Facial flushing
  7. Loss of appetite
  8. Sore throat
  9. Abnormal bleeding such as nosebleeds, bleeding gums and/or blood in your urine.

Causes

Dengue virus is an RNA virus. Transmission of this virus occurs in a cycle. An infected human is bitten by a female mosquito. The infected mosquito then bites another human, and the cycle continues.

MOSQUITO
Aedes aegypti mosquitoes most commonly bite at dusk and dawn, indoors, in shady areas, or when the weather is cloudy. They can bite and spread infection at any time of day and all year long.
The mosquitoes prefer to breed in areas of stagnant water, such as flower vases, uncovered barrels, buckets, water coolers and discarded tires. Some of the dangerous areas are wet floors and toilet tanks, as they allow the mosquitoes to breed in the residence.
Although the lifespan of an adult A. aegypti is two to four weeks depending on conditions, the eggs can be viable for over a year in dry state. This allows the mosquito to reappear after a cold winter or dry spell.

There are four serotypes of the virus that cause dengue (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3 and DEN-4)

Some facts about Ades mosquito-

  • Ae. aegypti is closely associated with human environments and can breed in indoor (flower vases, concrete water tanks in bathrooms), and artificial outdoor (vehicle tyres, water storage vessels, discarded containers) environments.
  • The eggs can survive up to 1 year without water. Once water is available (even small quantities of standing water), the eggs develop into larvae and then adult mosquitoes.
  • Aedes mosquitoes are active during daylight hours, and usually bite during the morning and late afternoon/evening hours.
  • Female Aedes mosquito acquires the virus while feeding on the blood of an infected person.
  • Female Aedes mosquito usually flies an average of 400 metres. But it may be transported accidently by humans from one place to another (e.g. in the back of the car, plants).

Diagnosis

A probable diagnosis is based on occurrence of fever along with some of the following symptoms.

  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Rash
  • Generalized pain

The diagnosis also takes into account whether the suspected person lives in endemic (high prevalence) area.

Blood test

  1. Microscopic examination: This is done in order to detect dengue. The earliest change detectable is a low white blood cell count which may then be followed by low platelets and metabolic acidosis.
  2. Haematocrit -Haemoconcentration, as estimated by an increase in haematocrit of 20% or more compared with convalescent values, is suggestive of hypovolaemia due to vascular permeability and plasma leakage.

Virus isolation – Cell culture is the most widely used method for dengue virus isolation

Nucleic acid detection– Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays offer better sensitivity compared to virus isolation. Dengue virus (Nucleic acid) can be detected in the blood about first 5 days after onset of symptoms.

Detection of antigenNS1 antigen test (non-structural protein 1) -Dengue NS1 antigen test is useful in the diagnosis of dengue fever in the first week of the illness.

Serological tests-

  1. MAC-ELISA –IgM antibody capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC- ELISA) can be used for detection of IgM antibody five days or more after the onset of fever. According to WHO ELISAs performed better than rapid tests.
  2. IgG ELISA– the IgG ELISA is used for the detection of recent (if paired sera are collected within the correct time interval) or past dengue infections.  A fourfold or greater increase in IgG antibodies in acute and convalescent paired sera can be used to detect recent infections. These tests are not in wide use.

PRNT- Plaque Reduction and Neutralization Test (PRNT) and the microneutralization PRNT can be used to detect specific serotype of dengue virus.

Management

There is no specific medication for treatment of a dengue infection. Persons suspected of dengue can use analgesics (pain relievers) and avoid those containing aspirin. They should take plenty of fluids, rest and consult a physician at the earliest possible. If condition does not improve after 3-5 days, then one should seek further medical advice.

Complications

A person with dengue may develop a severe and life threatening form of dengue known as dengue shock syndrome. This may be accompanied by a sudden and severe drop in blood pressure. Other symptoms of dengue shock syndrome are as follows:

  • Cold, clammy skin
  • A weak rapid pulse
  • Dry mouth
  • Reduced flow of urine
  • Fast breathing

The patients may seek medical advice immediately.

Prevention

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There is no vaccine to prevent dengue yet. The best way to prevent getting the disease is to avoid being bitten by mosquito. Some of the preventive measures are as follows:

  • Use insect repellents and mosquito nets to avoid being bitten. Bodies could be protected from mosquito bite by applying insect repellent (containing DEET) on the clothes and exposed part of the body especially when you travel to Dengue Fever endemic areas.
  • Wear long-sleeved clothes and long trousers while going outdoors.
  • The best preventive measure for residents living in areas infested with Aedes aegypti is to clean the places where the mosquito lays their eggs, primarily artificial containers that store water. Items that collect rainwater or are used to store water (for example, plastic containers, drums, buckets, or used automobile tires) should be cleaned or discarded. Pet watering containers and flower vases should be emptied and scrub dried at least once a week. This will eliminate the mosquito eggs, larvae and reduce the number of mosquitoes present in these areas.
  • The risk of being bitten by mosquitoes can also be reduced by screening the windows and doors.
  • Patient should stay under bed net or in a place with intact window/door screens to prevent Aedes mosquito bites during first week of illness. This will prevent further spread of dengue to other persons.
  •  Cover water containers tightly so that mosquitoes can’t get in to lay eggs.
  •  In cultivation ponds, water tanks or large containers, biological controls such larvivorous fishes (gambusia/guppy) and biological larvicides (Bacillus thuringiensis) would be a good option.
  • Chemical larvicide such as Temephos can be safely used in potable water.
  • Pesticide spraying or “fogging” can also be effective.

 

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10 Reasons Why Good Sleep is Important

By August 25, 2017 Article
 
 A good night’s sleep is incredibly important for health.

In fact, it is just as important as eating healthy and exercising.

Unfortunately, the Western environment is interfering with natural sleep patterns.

People are now sleeping less than they did in the past, and sleep quality has decreased as well.

Here are 10 reasons why good sleep is important.

1. Poor Sleep Can Make You Fat

Poor sleep is strongly linked to weight gain.

People with short sleep duration tend to weigh significantly more than those who get adequate sleep .

In fact, short sleep duration is one of the strongest risk factors for obesity.

In one massive review study, children and adults with short sleep duration were 89% and 55% more likely to become obese, respectively.

The effect of sleep on weight gain is believed to be mediated by numerous factors, including hormones and motivation to exercise .

If you are trying to lose weight, getting quality sleep is absolutely crucial.

BOTTOM LINE:Short sleep duration is associated with a drastically increased risk of weight gain and obesity, in both children and adults.

 2. Good Sleepers Tend to Eat Fewer Calories

Studies show that sleep deprived individuals have a bigger appetite and tend to eat more calories.

Sleep deprivation disrupts the daily fluctuations in appetite hormones and is believed to cause poor appetite regulation .

This includes higher levels of ghrelin, the hormone that stimulates appetite, and reduced levels of leptin, the hormone that suppresses appetite .

BOTTOM LINE:Poor sleep affects hormones that regulate appetite. Those who get adequate sleep tend to eat fewer calories than those who don’t.

Sleep is important for various aspects of brain function.

This includes cognition, concentration, productivity and performance .

All of these are negatively affected by sleep deprivation.

A study on medical interns provides a good example.

Interns on a “traditional schedule” made 36% more serious medical errors than interns on a schedule that allowed more sleep .

Another study found short sleep can negatively impact some aspects of brain function to a similar degree as alcohol intoxication .

Good sleep, on the other hand, has been shown to improve problem solving skills and enhance memory performance of both children and adults .

BOTTOM LINE:Good sleep can maximize problem solving skills and enhance memory. Poor sleep has been shown to impair brain function.

 4. Good Sleep Can Maximize Athletic Performance

Sleep has been shown to enhance athletic performance.

In a study on basketball players, longer sleep was shown to significantly improve speed, accuracy, reaction times, and mental wellbeing .

Less sleep duration has also been associated with poor exercise performance and functional limitation in elderly women.

A study of over 2,800 women found that poor sleep was linked to slower walking, lower grip strength, and greater difficulty performing independent activities .

BOTTOM LINE:Longer sleep has been shown to improve many aspects of athletic and physical performance.

We know that sleep quality and duration can have a major effect on many risk factors.

These are the factors believed to drive chronic diseases, including heart disease.

A review of 15 studies found that short sleepers are at far greater risk of heart disease or stroke than those who sleep 7 to 8 hours per night .

BOTTOM LINE:Sleeping less than 7-8 hours per night is linked to an increased risk of heart disease and stroke.

 6. Sleep Affects Glucose Metabolism and Type 2 Diabetes Risk

Experimental sleep restriction affects blood sugar and reduces insulin sensitivity .

In a study of healthy young men, restricting sleep to 4 hours per night for 6 nights in a row caused symptoms of pre-diabetes .

This was then resolved after 1 week of increased sleep duration.

Poor sleep habits are also strongly linked to adverse effects on blood sugar in the general population.

Those sleeping less than 6 hours per night have repeatedly been shown to be at increased risk for type 2 diabetes .

BOTTOM LINE:Sleep deprivation can cause pre-diabetes in healthy adults, in as little as 6 days. Many studies show a strong link between short sleep duration and type 2 diabetes risk.

7. Poor Sleep is Linked to Depression

Mental health issues, such as depression, are strongly linked to poor sleep quality and sleeping disorders.

It has been estimated that 90% of patients with depression complain about sleep quality .

Poor sleep is even associated with increased risk of death by suicide .

Those with sleeping disorders, such as insomnia or obstructive sleep apnea, also report significantly higher rates of depression than those without .

BOTTOM LINE:Poor sleeping patterns are strongly linked to depression, particularly for those with a sleeping disorder.

8. Sleep Improves Your Immune Function

Even a small loss of sleep has been shown to impair immune function .

One large 2-week study monitored the development of the common cold after giving people nasal drops with the virus that causes colds .

They found that those who slept less than 7 hours were almost three times more likely to develop a cold than those who slept 8 hours or more.

If you often get colds, ensuring that you get at least 8 hours of sleep per night could be very helpful. Eating more garlic can help too.

BOTTOM LINE:Getting at least 8 hours of sleep can improve immune function and help fight the common cold.

9. Poor Sleep is Linked to Increased Inflammation

Sleep can have a major effect on inflammation in the body.

In fact, sleep loss is known to activate undesirable markers of inflammation and cell damage.

Poor sleep has been strongly linked to long-term inflammation of the digestive tract, in disorders known as inflammatory bowel diseases .

One study observed that sleep deprived patients with Crohn’s disease were twice as likely to relapse as patients who slept well .

Researchers are even recommending sleep evaluation to help predict outcomes in sufferers of long-term inflammatory issues .

BOTTOM LINE:Sleep affects the body’s inflammatory responses. Poor sleep is strongly linked to inflammatory bowel diseases and can increase the risk of disease recurrence.

10. Sleep Affects Emotions and Social Interactions

Sleep loss reduces our ability to interact socially.

Several studies confirmed this using emotional facial recognition tests .

One study found that people who had not slept had a reduced ability to recognize expressions of anger and happiness .

Researchers believe that poor sleep affects our ability to recognize important social cues and process emotional information.

Take Home Message

Along with nutrition and exercise, good sleep is one of the pillars of health.

You simply can not achieve optimal health without taking care of your sleep.

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10 Home Remedies to Improve Eyesight

By August 25, 2017 Article

Weak eyesight is most often associated with either nearsightedness (called myopia) or farsightedness (called hyperopia). Factors like genetics, poor nutrition, aging and excessive strain on the eyes usually contribute to these conditions.

The most common symptoms of weak eyesight are blurry vision, frequent headaches and watery eyes.

Be sure to consult your doctor for proper diagnosis and treatment. At times, eye problems can be caused by serious issues like glaucoma, macular degeneration, cataracts and optic neuropathy.

eak eyesight is usually corrected with prescription glasses, lenses or even surgery. You can also try some natural home remedies to help improve your eyesight.

Here are the top 10 home remedies for weak eyesight.

1. Eye Exercises

Eye exercises make your eye muscles more flexible, and bring energy and blood flow to the eyes to maintain optimal vision. Regular eye exercises combat eye strain and also improve focus as well as concentration.

Here are few exercises to improve your eyesight:

pencil focus eye exercise

Hold a pencil at an arm’s length and focus on it. Slowly bring it closer to your nose and then move it farther from your vision until you can no longer keep it in focus. Repeat about 10 times a day.

Exercise 2:

Roll your eyes - exercise

Roll your eyes in the clockwise direction for a few seconds, and then roll them counter-clockwise for a few seconds. Repeat four or five times, blinking your eyes in between each set.

Exercise 3:

blinking your eyes - exercise
Try eyelid fluttering by blinking your eyes 20 to 30 times rapidly and repeatedly, without squeezing your eyes shut. Finally, close your eyes and let them rest. You can also try palming, which is described below. Do this twice daily.

Exercise 4:

Concentrate your vision on a distant object for a while. The best way to do this without straining your eyes is to look at the moon and focus on it for three to five minutes daily.

Perform one or more of these eye exercises on a regular basis, at least for a few months, to get encouraging results.

2. Sunning and Palming

Sunning and palming are also beneficial for eyes as these methods help reactivate and flex the eye lens and ciliary muscles.

Sunning will provide the benefit of the sun’s healing abilities and palming will promote relaxation and a sense of well-being. According to Chinese culture, the sun contains vital life energies that are critical to the health of the eyes as well as the overall body.

  • For sunning, allow the sun to shine directly on your closed eyelids while breathing deeply. Do this once daily for a few minutes, followed by palming.
  • For palming, rub your palms together to generate heat and then gently cup your palms over your closed eyes without applying pressure on the eyes. Make sure to cover your eyes completely so there is no trace of light. Do this several times daily while visualizing a pleasant scene.

3. Acupressure/Acupuncture

According to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), malfunctioning or diseases in the eyes are often closely related to the liver and kidneys. There are various acupressure/acupuncture points around the orbits of the eyes, which are the bones that surround the eyeballs.

Acupressure points for eyes

  • Massage each of the acupressure points around the orbits of your eyes gently for five to 10 seconds. Start from point #1 shown in the image above and go up and outward massaging each distinct point. You can do this several times daily.Note: If you are pregnant, consult a trained acupuncturist before trying this therapy. Also, do not massage areas with scars, burns or infection.
  • Walking barefoot on grass in the morning dew for about 30 minutes is also considered an acupuncture method to help improve eyesight as it activates the nerve fibers connected to your feet. There are reflexology pressure points for the eyes on the second and third toes. Plus, the green color of the grass is soothing for the eyes.

4. Ginkgo Biloba

Ginkgo biloba improves circulation and eye blood flow. In addition to improving your vision, it protects against problems like glaucoma and macular degeneration. Early research suggests that it may also benefit people with retinopathy.

Ginkgo biloba is also known to relieve anxiety and improve memory and thinking, especially in those suffering from dementia and Alzheimer’s disease.

Take 120-mg standardized ginkgo biloba capsules daily in two or three divided doses.

Note: This herb should not be given to children. Also, people suffering from diabetes should consult their doctor before taking this herb.

5. Bilberry

Bilberry is another popular herb for vision and eye heath. It can also help improve night vision as it stimulates the regeneration of the visual purple component of the retina.

Plus, it protects against macular degeneration, glaucoma and cataracts. It is also good for retinal problems related to diabetes or high blood pressure as it is high in a chemical called anthocyanoside that has powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

  • Eat about one-half cup of ripe bilberry fruits daily.
  • You can also take bilberry supplements, after consulting your doctor. Generally, it is advised to take 160 mg of bilberry extract (with 25 percent anthocyanidin) two times a day, a few times a week.

Note: As this herb may interact with other herbs and medications, consult your doctor before taking it.

6. Almonds

Almonds are also great for improving vision because of their rich omega-3 fatty acid, vitamin E and antioxidant content. They also help enhance memory and concentration.

  1. Soak 5 to 10 almonds in water overnight.
  2. The next morning, peel the skin and grind the almonds.
  3. Consume this paste with a glass of warm milk.
  4. Do this daily for at least a few months.

7. Carrots

Carrots are a gorgeous and wholesome vegetable. They are so versatile and give a dish an amazing color. Apart from being scrumptious, carrots are loaded with beta-carotene, which later transforms into vitamin A, that enhances the general wellbeing of the eyes. You can find several recipes for carrot soup on the internet. Add it to the curries and pair it up with other veggies. You can derive maximum nourishment from raw carrots since the cooking process slightly deteriorates its nutritional profile. Munch on a carrot whenever you get an urge to snack or add it to your salads. But remember to drink lots of water, because carrots are high in fiber content.

You can consume one cup of carrot and gooseberry juice on an empty stomach. Like carrots, gooseberries are rich sources of vitamin A and antioxidants.

8. Chocolates

Chocolates, particularly the dark ones, are rich in flavonoid, a sort of antioxidant which is good for the retina and cornea. A piece of dark chocolate twice a week won’t hurt. So go ahead and indulge yourself in the sinful goodness of chocolate.

9. Eggs

Eggs comprise of a lot of proteins. Proteins are the building blocks of our body. If you want the cellular regeneration process in your eyes to take place at a right pace, you need to supply your body with high-quality proteins. The egg yolk is surely a winner in this case. Why not crack up an egg or two and make a ‘sunny side up’ in a capsicum ring to make a funky breakfast?

10. Apply A Little Pressure

This is also an exercise that relieves stiffness and fatigue of the eye muscles, making you feel at ease. It involves applying light pressure with your fingertips on some areas of your face, particularly those above the eyes. You need to be comfortably seated with eyes closed. Slightly curl your fingers so that all the four fingertips are in alignment. Place the fingertips on the area above each eye, i.e., just above the eyebrows. You have to place them in such a way that the index fingers touch the inner end of the eyebrows. Apply gentle pressure with your fingertips on that area and smoothly make your way towards the outer side of the eyebrows, i.e., towards the temple. Come back to the inner side of the eyebrows again. Repeat the motion 10 times and you will feel really refreshed.

Protection And Hygiene

Certain measures should be followed to protect your eye vision and overall eye health.

  • Avoid sitting close to the television screen or computer monitor.
  • Avoid using these devices for long periods of time and at a continuous stretch. Look away from the monitor occasionally and rest your eyes every few minutes.
  • Avoid exposing your eyes to the harsh sun rays, smoke, dust and strong winds. Wear sunglasses to avoid the strong glare of the sun.
  • Wear swimming goggles to protect your eyes from chlorinated water in the swimming pool or debris in the ocean.
  • Read and work in a well-lit area to avoid eye strain.
  • Look away and rest your eyes every few minutes.
  • Practice some basic eye exercises, like closing your eyelids and gently massaging your eyeballs.
  • Soak a ball of cotton in cold rose water and place it on your eyelid for 5-10 minutes.
  • Wash or sanitize your hands regularly. Regularly use eye drops to avoid dry eyes.

When it comes to improving vision, a combination of right food, exercise, and taking proper care of the eyes can yield favorable results. The overall health of your eyes depends on certain nutrients, such as vitamin A and C, bioflavonoids, carotenoids, omega-3 fatty acids, minerals, and antioxidants. Incorporating these nutrients into your diet will help improve your eyesight. Apart from the food items mentioned above, sweet potato, kale, Swiss chard, turnips, and mustard leaves also contain vitamin A. Peppers are rich sources of vitamin C that is essential for maintaining the overall health of your eyes.

Proper nutrition strengthens your eyes while proper exercise de-stresses your extra-ocular muscles. Healthy muscles and enhanced blood circulation promote healthier vision. The key to an enhanced vision is perseverance and patience, because there is no shortcut to improved eyesight when you take the natural path.

While it is not quite possible to eliminate the vision problem altogether, you can definitely bring the power of your eyeglasses down by several points in a matter of few months. You must wear your spectacles, whenever needed. Many people don’t wear spectacles, thinking that it hides the beauty of their overall look. However, not wearing spectacles can lead to further deterioration of vision. So, stick to your glasses, eat healthy, give your eyes a gentle workout and slowly but surely, your eyesight will improve!

 

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What should I keep in my first aid kit?

By August 23, 2017 Article

It’s important to have a well-stocked first aid kit in your home so you can deal with minor accidents and injuries.Your first aid kit should be locked and kept in a cool, dry place out of the reach of children.Many people also keep a small first aid kit in their car for emergencies.

Your basic first aid kit

A basic first aid kit may contain:

  • plasters in a variety of different sizes and shapes
  • small, medium and large sterile gauze dressings
  • at least two sterile eye dressings
  • triangular bandages
  • crêpe rolled bandages
  • safety pins
  • disposable sterile gloves
  • tweezers
  • scissors
  • alcohol-free cleansing wipes
  • sticky tape
  • thermometer (preferably digital)
  • skin rash cream, such as hydrocortisone or calendula
  • cream or spray to relieve insect bites and stings
  • antiseptic cream
  • painkillers such as paracetamol (or infant paracetamol for children), aspirin (not to be given to children under 16), or ibuprofen
  • cough medicine
  • antihistamine tablets
  • distilled water for cleaning wounds
  • eye wash and eye bath

It may also be useful to keep a basic first aid manual or instruction booklet with your first aid kit.Medicines should be checked regularly to make sure they are within their use-by dates.

You can buy ready-made kit online from Medideal.in. Buy First Aid Kit Now

 

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Uses for Salt: Medical Treatments

By August 23, 2017 Healthmeup

Sore throats, toothaches, postnasal drip, bee stings, mosquito bites, painful gums, poison ivy, and poison oak are some of the ailments for which salt has been prescribed. Modern science doesn’t endorse all of the traditional uses of salt, but this article offers a picture of the seemingly endless healing qualities salt may have.

Sore Throat: The simplest remedy for minor sore throat pain is a warm saltwater gargle (no matter how much you dislike the taste!). Just add 1 teaspoon salt to 8 ounces warm water, and gargle several times a day. See a physician if the sore throat persists longer than 3 days or is accompanied by a high fever.

Burns or Injuries: A severe burn in your mouth from eating something very hot can be relieved by rinsing with saltwater every hour or so. Use 1/2 teaspoon salt in 8 ounces warm water.

Biting the tongue or cheek can result in a large amount of blood but is rarely serious. To help ease the pain, rinse mouth with 1 teaspoon salt in 1 cup warm water.

Gums: Swish with 1 teaspoon salt in 4 ounces warm water when gums are painful. If you have an abscess, the salt will draw out some of the infection. Any gum pain should be treated by a dentist as soon as possible.

Toothaches: As a temporary remedy for a toothache before going to the dentist, rinse your mouth with a mixture of 4 ounces warm water, 2 tablespoons vinegar, and 1 tablespoon salt.

Add 1/4 teaspoon salt and 1/4 teaspoon baking soda to 8 ounces warm (not hot) water. Gargle with the mixture 3 times a day to ease your sore throat. If pain persists longer than 3 days, contact a physician.

Nose: Make your own saline nose drops to use for controlling annoying postnasal drip. People with sleep apnea, a condition that involves a dangerous interruption of breathing while asleep, may also want to try these drops to help keep nasal passages open.

When Summer’s Not Fun

Summer can be fun when you’re not dealing with the traumas of the season. Salt can help those go much easier.

Bee stings and bug bites: Work a mixture of salt and water into a paste that will stick to a bee sting or bug bite. Apply the paste, and let sit until dry. This should relieve any itch or pain.

Combine equal parts baking soda and salt, then brush onto a sting or bite area to help relieve itch.

Treat a mosquito bite by soaking it for a few minutes in saltwater, then applying an ointment made of salt and lard.

Poison ivy and poison oak: Help poison ivy clear up more quickly by soaking irritated skin in hot saltwater.

Allergies: Irrigating the nostrils and sinuses with saltwater is an excellent way to control persistent, annoying allergy symptoms.

Dissolve 1/2 teaspoon salt in 8 ounces room temperature water. Draw mixture into a nose dropper, and inhale liquid through your nostrils. Repeat several times for each nostril, using 2 or 3 drops of the solution each time. When you are through, blow your nose until no discharge remains.

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